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  1. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.
    [参考译文] 我们生活在一种药品(毒品)的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里: 一片用来止头痛的阿斯匹林,一些用来社交的葡萄酒,早上自己提提神所喝的咖啡,一支用来定神的香烟。
  2. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
    [参考译文] 对药品的依赖性首先表现为不断增长的耐药量,要产生想得到的效果所需要的药品剂量越来越大,然后表现为当停止用药后,令人不快的停药症状的出现。
  3. “Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?” Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. “You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?”
    [参考译文] 上星期参议员罗博特多尔质问时代华纳公司的高级管理人员们:”难道这就是你们希望能够成就的事业?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,但是难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子们吗?”
  4. “The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column’, “lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be…”
    [参考译文] “对任何一个民主社会的考验,”他在《华尔街杂志》的一个专栏文章中写到,”不在于它能够多有效地控制各种意见的表达,而在于这个社会是否能给予思考和表达的尽可能广泛的自由,不管有时候这种结果是多么的富有争议或令人不快…”
  5. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month’s stockholders’ meeting, Levin asserted that “music is not the cause of society’s ills” and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students.
    [参考译文] 在-上个月的股东大会上关于摇滚歌词的讨论中,莱文宣称说:”音乐不是社会问题的原因”,他甚至还以他的儿子为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,并用说唱音乐与学生们进行沟通。
  6. Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as “steering the economy to a soft landing” of “a touch on the brakes” , makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.
    [参考译文] 有很多用于描述货币政策的词汇,例如”轻踩刹车”以”操纵经济软着陆”,使货币政策听起来像是一门精确的科学。没有什么比这更远离实际情况的了。
  7. Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since, conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, have little productive slack.
    [参考译文] 经济学家们对英国和美国的有利的通货膨胀数据尤其感到惊讶,因为传统的计量方法显示两国的经济,特别是美国的经济,几乎没有生产萧条的时候。
  8. The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
    [参考译文] 很不幸,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为世界经济结构的强有力的变化已经结束了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史关 为基础的旧的经济模式。
  9. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.
    [参考译文] 例如,阿斯旺大坝使得尼罗河不再洪水泛滥,但是它也夺去了埃及以前所享有的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥–这些换宋的就是这么个疾病滋生的水库,现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。
  10. New ways of organizing the workplace–all that re-engineering and downsizing–are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training,
    [参考译文] 企业重组的新方法–所有那些重新设计、缩小规模的做法–只是对 一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献。这种经济还受许多其他因素的驱动,比如结合设备和机械上的投资、新技术,以及在教育和培训上的投资。
  11. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.
    [参考译文] 他的同事迈克尔•比尔说,有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行 司内部的重新设计,在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。
  12. Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “The Flight from S.cience and Reason” , held in New York City in 1995, and “Science in the Age of (Mis) information, which assembled last June near Buffalo.
    [参考译文] 科学卫士们在会议上也表述了他们的关注,比如1995年在纽约市举行的 “逃离科学与理性”会议,以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的”(错误) 信息时代的科学”会议。
  13. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.
    [参考译文] 一项关于1996年新闻报道的调查显示,反科学的标签还可以贴在许多其他团体身上,从提倡消灭最后存留的天花病毒的权威机构,到鼓吹削减基础研究经费的共和党人(都被贴上了反科学的标签)。
  14. The ‘true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrllch of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.
    [参考译文] 环境研究的先驱、斯坦福大学的保罗•厄尔里西认为,科学真正的敌人是那些对支持全球变暖、臭氧层损耗以及工业发展的其他后果的证据提出置疑的人。
  15. This development–and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead–has enthroned the South as America’s most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation’s head counting.
    [参考译文] 这种发展–以及其对美国政治、经济在未来几年的潜在的强有力的影响一一使得南部在全国人口普查中有史以来首次成为美国人口最密集的地区。
  16. Often they choose–and still are choosing–somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog.crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.
    [参考译文] 他们常常选择–现在依然这样选择–居住在那些气候较为寒冷的地区, 比如俄勒冈、爱达荷,还有阿拉斯加,为的是逃避烟雾、犯罪,以及”金州”(加利福尼亚)城市化进程中的其他问题。
  17. As a result, California’s growth rate dropped during the 1970’s, to 18.5 percent–little more than two thirds the 1960’s growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.
    [参考译文] 结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在20世纪70年代时下降到了18.5%一一稍高于60年代增长率的三分之二,大大低于西部其他各州。
  18. Unlike most of the world’s volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth’s surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.
    [参考译文] 跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是,它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球表面巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,它们中有许多位于一个板块较纵深的内部。
  19. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth’s interior.
    [参考译文] 携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来,但是这些板块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。
  20. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continentmay break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.
    [参考译文] 暂缺
  21. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary–the dangers of drug interactions, for example–and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn’t clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.
    [参考译文] 尽管警告常常是适当而且必须的–比如对于药物相互作用的危险提出警告–许多警告还是按州或联邦政府规定要求给出的,然而(我们) 并不清楚,如果顾客受到伤害时,这些警告是不是确实可以使得生产者 和销售者豁免责任。
  22. At the same time, the American Law Institute–a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight–issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.
    [参考译文] 与此同时,美国法律研究所–由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成,他们的建议分量极重–发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针,宣称公司不必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险,也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意一些可能会出现的危险。
  23. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.
    [参考译文] 但是,在过去的一年间,软件公司已经开发出工具,使得公司可以直接将信息”推出”给顾客,直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。
  24. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.
    [参考译文] 像Virtual Vineyards,Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明,一个将交互性、热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。
  25. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students’ career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.
    [参考译文] 有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩,有些人为教育的彻底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩,这两群人之间有一条无形的界线。
  26. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.
    [参考译文] 我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,这个公民人物如果不能很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响,那么其公民特征就是不完整的。
  27. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.
    [参考译文] 另外,在我们这么一个大国里,经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的。

61.But,for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.
[参考译文] 但是,对一个小部分学生来说,职业教育也是条可取的路径。因为在其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。

  1. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so–and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.
    [参考译文] 他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验–尽管还没有人建议这么做–他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得•夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90 天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。
  2. In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning”.
    [参考译文] 在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中,夏皮罗提出,专家组已经达成广泛共识,那就是”试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的做法在道德上是不可接受的”。
  3. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo’s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
    [参考译文] 因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生 前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究上将保持沉默。
  4. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.
    [参考译文] 如果试验是像科学杂志上的报告所示的那样如实地根据计划规划和实施的话,那么对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。
  5. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.
    [参考译文] 审查者完全有理由相信,知道自己准备做什么、怎么做的科学家不应该因为必须一只眼盯着收银机,一只眼盯着显微镜而分散了注意力。




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