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计算机相关常用英语词汇 computer words

计算机相关常用英语词汇 computer words

 

计算机相关常用英语词汇 computer words

 

CPU

alu(arithmetic logic unit,算术逻辑单元)

agu(address generation units,地址产成单元)

bga(ball grid array,球状矩阵排列)

bht(branch prediction table,分支预测表)

bpu(branch processing unit,分支处理单元)

brach pediction(分支预测)

cmos: complementary metal oxide semiconductor,互补金属氧化物半导体

cisc(complex instruction set computing,复杂指令集计算机)

clk(clock cycle,时钟周期)

cob(cache on board,板上集成缓存)

cod(cache on die,芯片内集成缓存)

cpga(ceramic pin grid array,陶瓷针型栅格阵列)

cpu(center processing unit,中央处理器)

data forwarding(数据前送)

decode(指令解码)

dib(dual independent bus,双独立总线)

ec(embedded controller,嵌入式控制器)

embedded chips(嵌入式)

epic(explicitly parallel instruction code,并行指令代码)

fadd(floationg point addition,浮点加)

fcpga(flip chip pin grid array,反转芯片针脚栅格阵列)

fdiv(floationg point divide,浮点除)

femms:fast entry/exit multimedia state,快速进入/退出多媒体状态

fft(fast fourier transform,快速热欧姆转换)

fid(fid:frequency identify,频率鉴别号码)

fifo(first input first output,先入先出队列)

flip-chip(芯片反转)

flop(floating point operations per second,浮点操作/秒)

fmul(floationg point multiplication,浮点乘)

fpu(float point unit,浮点运算单元)

fsub(floationg point subtraction,浮点减)

gvpp(generic visual perception processor,常规视觉处理器)

hl-pbga: 表面黏著,高耐热、轻薄型塑胶球状矩阵封装

ia(intel architecture,英特尔架构)

icu(instruction control unit,指令控制单元)

id:identify,鉴别号码

idf(intel developer forum,英特尔开发者论坛)

ieu(integer execution units,整数执行单元)

imm: intel mobile module, 英特尔移动模块

instructions cache,指令缓存

instruction coloring(指令分类)

ipc(instructions per clock cycle,指令/时钟周期)

isa(instruction set architecture,指令集架构)

kni(katmai new instructions,katmai新指令集,即sse)

latency(潜伏期)

ldt(lightning data transport,闪电数据传输总线)

local interconnect(局域互连)

mesi(modified, exclusive, shared, invalid:修改、排除、共享、废弃)

mmx(multimedia extensions,多媒体扩展指令集)

mmu(multimedia unit,多媒体单元)

mflops(million floationg point/second,每秒百万个浮点操作)

mhz(million hertz,兆赫兹)

mp(multi-processing,多重处理器架构)

mps(multiprocessor specification,多重处理器规范)

msrs(model-specific registers,特别模块寄存器)

naoc(no-account overclock,无效超频)

ni:non-intel,非英特尔

olga(organic land grid array,基板栅格阵列)

ooo(out of order,乱序执行)

pga: pin-grid array(引脚网格阵列),耗电大

post-risc

pr(performance rate,性能比率)

psn(processor serial numbers,处理器序列号)

pib(processor in a box,盒装处理器)

ppga(plastic pin grid array,塑胶针状矩阵封装)

pqfp(plastic quad flat package,塑料方块平面封装)

raw(read after write,写后读)

register contention(抢占寄存器)

register pressure(寄存器不足)

register renaming(寄存器重命名)

remark(芯片频率重标识)

resource contention(资源冲突)

retirement(指令引退)

risc(reduced instruction set computing,精简指令集计算机)

sec: single edge connector,单边连接器

shallow-trench isolation(浅槽隔离)

simd(single instruction multiple data,单指令多数据流)

sio2f(fluorided silicon oxide,二氧氟化硅)

smi(system management interrupt,系统管理中断)

smm(system management mode,系统管理模式)

smp(symmetric multi-processing,对称式多重处理架构)

soi: silicon-on-insulator,绝缘体硅片

sonc(system on a chip,系统集成芯片)

spec(system performance evaluation corporation,系统性能评估测试)

sqrt(square root calculations,平方根计算)

sse(streaming simd extensions,单一指令多数据流扩展)

superscalar(超标量体系结构)

tcp: tape carrier package(薄膜封装),发热小

throughput(吞吐量)

tlb(translate look side buffers,翻译旁视缓冲器)

uswc(uncacheabled speculative write combination,无缓冲随机联合写操作)

valu(vector arithmetic logic unit,向量算术逻辑单元)

vliw(very long instruction word,超长指令字)

vpu(vector permutate unit,向量排列单元)

vpu(vector processing units,向量处理单元,即处理mmx、sse等simd指令的地方)

 

主板类

 

adimm(advanced dual in-line memory modules,高级双重内嵌式内存模块)

amr(audio/modem riser;音效/调制解调器主机板附加直立插卡)

aha(accelerated hub architecture,加速中心架构)

ask ir(amplitude shift keyed infra-red,长波形可移动输入红外线)

atx: at extend(扩展型at)

bios(basic input/output system,基本输入/输出系统)

cse(configuration space enable,可分配空间)

db: device bay,设备插架

dmi(desktop management interface,桌面管理接口)

eb(expansion bus,扩展总线)

eisa(enhanced industry standard architecture,增强形工业标准架构)

emi(electromagnetic interference,电磁干扰)

escd(extended system configuration data,可扩展系统配置数据)

fbc(frame buffer cache,帧缓冲缓存)

firewire(火线,即ieee1394标准)

fsb: front side bus,前置总线,即外部总线

fwh( firmware hub,固件中心)

gmch(graphics & memory controller hub,图形和内存控制中心)

gpis(general purpose inputs,普通操作输入)

ich(input/output controller hub,输入/输出控制中心)

ir(infrared ray,红外线)

irda(infrared ray,红外线通信接口可进行局域网存取和文件共享)

isa: industry standard architecture,工业标准架构

isa(instruction set architecture,工业设置架构)

mdc(mobile daughter card,移动式子卡)

mrh-r(memory repeater hub,内存数据处理中心)

mrh-s(sdram repeater hub,sdram数据处理中心)

mth(memory transfer hub,内存转换中心)

ngio(next generation input/output,新一代输入/输出标准)

p64h(64-bit pci controller hub,64位pci控制中心)

pcb(printed circuit board,印刷电路板)

pcba(printed circuit board assembly,印刷电路板装配)

pci: peripheral component interconnect,互连外围设备

pci sig(peripheral component interconnect special interest group,互连外围设备专业组)

post(power on self test,加电自测试)

rng(random number generator,随机数字发生器)

rtc: real time clock(实时时钟)

kbc(keybroad control,键盘控制器)

sap(sideband address port,边带寻址端口)

sba(side band addressing,边带寻址)

sma: share memory architecture,共享内存结构

std(suspend to disk,磁盘唤醒)

str(suspend to ram,内存唤醒)

svr: switching voltage regulator(交换式电压调节)

usb(universal serial bus,通用串行总线)

usdm(unified system diagnostic manager,统一系统监测管理器)

vid(voltage identification definition,电压识别认证)

vrm (voltage regulator module,电压调整模块)

zif: zero insertion force, 零插力

主板技术

gigabyte

acops: automatic cpu overheat prevention system(cpu过热预防系统)

siv: system information viewer(系统信息观察)

磐英

esdj(easy setting dual jumper,简化cpu双重跳线法)

浩鑫

upt(usb、panel、link、tv-out四重接口)

芯片组

acpi(advanced configuration and power interface,先进设置和电源管理)

agp(accelerated graphics port,图形加速接口)

i/o(input/output,输入/输出)

mioc: memory and i/o bridge controller,内存和i/o桥控制器

nbc: north bridge chip(北桥芯片)

piix: pci isa/ide accelerator(加速器)

pse36: page size extension 36-bit,36位页面尺寸扩展模式

pxb: pci expander bridge,pci增强桥

rcg: ras/cas generator,ras/cas发生器

sbc: south bridge chip(南桥芯片)

smb: system management bus(全系统管理总线)

spd(serial presence detect,内存内部序号检测装置)

ssb: super south bridge,超级南桥芯片

tdp: triton data path(数据路径)

tsc: triton system controller(系统控制器)

qpa: quad port acceleration(四接口加速)

 

显示设备类

asic: application specific integrated circuit(特殊应用积体电路)

asc(auto-sizing and centering,自动调效屏幕尺寸和中心位置)

asc(anti static coatings,防静电涂层)

agas(anti glare anti static coatings,防强光、防静电涂层)

bla: bearn landing area(电子束落区)

bmc(black matrix screen,超黑矩阵屏幕)

crc: cyclical redundancy check(循环冗余检查)

crt(cathode ray tube,阴极射线管)

ddc:display data channel,显示数据通道

dec(direct etching coatings,表面蚀刻涂层)

dfl(dynamic focus lens,动态聚焦)

dfs(digital flex scan,数字伸缩扫描)

dic: digital image control(数字图像控制)

digital multiscan ii(数字式智能多频追踪)

dlp(digital light processing,数字光处理)

dosd: digital on screen display(同屏数字化显示)

dpms(display power management signalling,显示能源管理信号)

dot pitch(点距)

dql(dynamic quadrapole lens,动态四极镜)

dsp(digital signal processing,数字信号处理)

efeal(extended field elliptical aperture lens,可扩展扫描椭圆孔镜头)

frc: frame rate control(帧比率控制)

hvd(high voltage differential,高分差动)

lcd(liquid crystal display,液晶显示屏)

lcos: liquid crystal on silicon(硅上液晶)

led(light emitting diode,光学二级管)

l-sagic(low power-small aperture g1 wiht impregnated cathode,低电压光圈阴极管)

lvd(low voltage differential,低分差动)

lvds: low voltage differential signal(低电压差动信号)

mals(multi astigmatism lens system,多重散光聚焦系统)

mda(monochrome adapter,单色设备)

ms: magnetic sensors(磁场感应器)

porous tungsten(活性钨)

rsds: reduced swing differential signal(小幅度摆动差动信号)

sc(screen coatings,屏幕涂层)

single ended(单终结)

shadow mask(阴罩式)

tdt(timeing detection table,数据测定表)

ticrg: tungsten impregnated cathode ray gun(钨传输阴级射线枪)

tft(thin film transistor,薄膜晶体管)

ucc(ultra clear coatings,超清晰涂层)

vagp: variable aperature grille pitch(可变间距光栅)

vbi: vertical blanking interval(垂直空白间隙)

vdt(video display terminals,视频显示终端)

vrr: vertical refresh rate(垂直扫描频率)

 

视频类

3d:three dimensional,三维

3ds(3d subsystem,三维子系统)

ae(atmospheric effects,雾化效果)

afr(alternate frame rendering,交替渲染技术)

anisotropic filtering(各向异性过滤)

appe(advanced packet parsing engine,增强形帧解析引擎)

av(analog video,模拟视频)

back buffer,后置缓冲

backface culling(隐面消除)

battle for eyeballs(眼球大战,各3d图形芯片公司为了争夺用户而作的竞争)

bilinear filtering(双线性过滤)

cem(cube environment mapping,立方环境映射)

cg(computer graphics,计算机生成图像)

clipping(剪贴纹理)

clock synthesizer,时钟合成器

compressed textures(压缩纹理)

concurrent command engine,协作命令引擎

center processing unit utilization,中央处理器占用率

dac(digital to analog converter,数模传换器)

decal(印花法,用于生成一些半透明效果,如:鲜血飞溅的场面)

dfp(digital flat panel,数字式平面显示器)

dfs: dynamic flat shading(动态平面描影),可用作加速

dithering(抖动)

directional light,方向性光源

dme: direct memory execute(直接内存执行)

dof(depth of field,多重境深)

dot texture blending(点型纹理混和)

double buffering(双缓冲区)

dir(direct rendering infrastructure,基层直接渲染)

dvi(digital video interface,数字视频接口)

dxr: dynamicxtended resolution(动态可扩展分辨率)

dxtc(direct x texture compress,directx纹理压缩,以s3tc为基础)

dynamic z-buffering(动态z轴缓冲区),显示物体远近,可用作远景

e-ddc(enhanced display data channel,增强形视频数据通道协议,定义了显示输出与主系统之间的通讯通道,能提高显示输出的画面质量)

edge anti-aliasing,边缘抗锯齿失真

e-edid(enhanced extended identification data,增强形扩充身份辨识数据,定义了电脑通讯视频主系统的数据格式)

execute buffers,执行缓冲区

environment mapped bump mapping(环境凹凸映射)

extended burst transactions,增强式突发处理

front buffer,前置缓冲

flat(平面描影)

frames rate is king(帧数为王)

fsaa(full scene anti-aliasing,全景抗锯齿)

fog(雾化效果)

flip double buffered(反转双缓存)

fog table quality(雾化表画质)

gart(graphic address remappng table,图形地址重绘表)

gouraud shading,高洛德描影,也称为内插法均匀涂色

gpu(graphics processing unit,图形处理器)

gtf(generalized timing formula,一般程序时间,定义了产生画面所需要的时间,包括了诸如画面刷新率等)

hal(hardware abstraction layer,硬件抽像化层)

hardware motion compensation(硬件运动补偿)

hdtv(high definition television,高清晰度电视)

hel: hardware emulation layer(硬件模拟层)

high triangle count(复杂三角形计数)

icd(installable client driver,可安装客户端驱动程序)

idct(inverse discrete cosine transform,非连续反余弦变换,geforce的dvd硬件强化技术)

immediate mode,直接模式

ippr: image processing and pattern recognition(图像处理和模式识别)

large textures(大型纹理)

lf(linear filtering,线性过滤,即双线性过滤)

lighting(光源)

lightmap(光线映射)

local peripheral bus(局域边缘总线)

mipmapping(mip映射)

modulate(调制混合)

motion compensation,动态补偿

motion blur(模糊移动)

mpps:million pixels per second,百万个像素/秒

multi-resolution mesh,多重分辨率组合

multi threaded bus master,多重主控

multitexture(多重纹理)

nerest mipmap(邻近mip映射,又叫点采样技术)

overdraw(透支,全景渲染造成的浪费)

partial texture downloads(并行纹理传输)

parallel processing perspective engine(平行透视处理器)

pc(perspective correction,透视纠正)

pgc(parallel graphics configuration,并行图像设置)

pixel(picture element,图像元素,又称p像素,屏幕上的像素点)

point light(一般点光源)

point sampling(点采样技术,又叫邻近mip映射)

precise pixel interpolation,精确像素插值

procedural textures(可编程纹理)

ramdac(random access memory digital to analog converter,随机存储器数/模转换器)

reflection mapping(反射贴图)

render(着色或渲染)

s端子(seperate)

s3(sight、sound、speed,视频、音频、速度)

s3tc(s3 texture compress,s3纹理压缩,仅支持s3显卡)

s3tl(s3 transformation & lighting,s3多边形转换和光源处理)

screen buffer(屏幕缓冲)

sdtv(standard definition television,标准清晰度电视)

sem(spherical environment mapping,球形环境映射)

shading,描影

single pass multi-texturing,单通道多纹理

sli(scanline interleave,扫描线间插,3dfx的双voodoo 2配合技术)

smart filter(智能过滤)

soft shadows(柔和阴影)

soft reflections(柔和反射)

spot light(小型点光源)

sra(symmetric rendering architecture,对称渲染架构)

stencil buffers(模板缓冲)

stream processor(流线处理)

superscaler rendering,超标量渲染

tbfb(tile based frame buffer,碎片纹理帧缓存)

texel(t像素,纹理上的像素点)

texture fidelity(纹理真实性)

texture swapping(纹理交换)

t&l(transform and lighting,多边形转换与光源处理)

t-buffer(t缓冲,3dfx voodoo4的特效,包括全景反锯齿full-scene anti-aliasing、动态模糊motionblur、焦点模糊depth of field blur、柔和阴影soft shadows、柔和反射soft reflections)

tca(twin cache architecture,双缓存结构)

transparency(透明状效果)

transformation(三角形转换)

trilinear filtering(三线性过滤)

texture modes,材质模式

tmipm: trilinear mip mapping(三次线性mip材质贴图)

uma(unified memory architecture,统一内存架构)

visualize geometry engine,可视化几何引擎

vertex lighting(顶点光源)

vertical interpolation(垂直调变)

vip(video interface port,视频接口)

virge: video and rendering graphics engine(视频描写图形引擎)

voxel(volume pixels,立体像素,novalogic的技术)

vqtc(vector-quantization texture compression,向量纹理压缩)

vsis(video signal standard,视频信号标准)

v-sync(同步刷新)

z buffer(z缓存)

 

音频类

 

3dpa(3d positional audio,3d定位音频)

ac(audio codec,音频多媒体数字信号编解码器)

auxiliary input(辅助输入接口)

cs(channel separation,声道分离)

ds3d(directsound 3d streams)

dsd(direct stream digital,直接数字信号流)

dsl(down loadable sample,可下载的取样音色)

dls-2(downloadable sounds level 2,第二代可下载音色)

eax(environmental audio extensions,环境音效扩展技术)

extended stereo(扩展式立体声)

fm(frequency modulation,频率调制)

fir(finite impulse response,有限推进响应)

fr(frequence response,频率响应)

fse(frequency shifter effect,频率转换效果)

hrtf(head related transfer function,头部关联传输功能)

iid(interaural intensity difference,两侧声音强度差别)

iir(infinite impulse response,无限推进响应)

interactive around-sound(交互式环绕声)

interactive 3d audio(交互式3d音效)

itd(interaural time difference,两侧声音时间延迟差别)

midi: musical instrument digital interface(乐器数字接口)

nda: non-dword-aligned ,非dword排列

raw pcm: raw pulse code modulated(元脉码调制)

rma: realmedia architecture(实媒体架构)

rtsp: real time streaming protocol(实时流协议)

sacd(super audio cd,超级音乐cd)

snr(signal to noise ratio,信噪比)

s/pdif(sony/phillips digital interface,索尼/飞利普数字接口)

srs: sound retrieval system(声音修复系统)

surround sound(环绕立体声)

super intelligent sound asic(超级智能音频集成电路)

thd+n(total harmonic distortion plus noise,总谐波失真加噪音)

qem(qsound environmental modeling,qsound环境建模扬声器组)

wg(wave guide,波导合成)

wt(wave table,波表合成)

 

RAM & ROM

abp: address bit permuting,地址位序列改变

atc(access time from clock,时钟存取时间)

bsram(burst pipelined synchronous static ram,突发式管道同步静态存储器) cas(columnaddress strobe,列地址控制器)

cct(clock cycle time,时钟周期)

db: deep buffer(深度缓冲)

ddr sdram(double date rate,双数据率sdram)

dil(dual-in-line)

dimm(dual in-line memory modules,双重内嵌式内存模块)

dram(dynamic random access memory,动态随机存储器)

drdram(direct rambus dram,直接rambus内存)

ecc(error checking and correction,错误检查修正)

eeprom(electrically erasable programmable rom,电擦写可编程只读存储器)

fm: flash memory(快闪存储器)

fmd rom (fluorescent material read only memory,荧光质只读存储器)

pirom:processor information rom,处理器信息rom

pledm: phase-state low electron(hole)-number drive memory

qbm(quad band memory,四倍边带内存)

rac(rambus asic cell,rambus集成电路单元)

ras(row address strobe,行地址控制器)

rdram(rambus direct ram,直接型rambusram)

rimm(rambus in-line memory modules,rambus内嵌式内存模块)

sdr sdram(single date rate,单数据率sdram)

sgram(synchronous graphics ram,同步图形随机储存器)

so-dimm(small outline dual in-line memory modules,小型双重内嵌式内存模块)

spd(serial presence detect,串行存在检查)

sram(static random access memory,静态随机存储器)

sstl-2(stub series terminated logic-2)

tsops(thin small outline packages,超小型封装)

uswv(uncacheable, speculative, write-combining非缓冲随机混合写入)

vcma(virtual channel memory architecture,虚拟通道内存结构)

 

磁盘和光驱类

aat(average access time,平均存取时间)

abs(auto balance system,自动平衡系统)

asmo(advanced storage magneto-optical,增强形光学存储器)

ast(average seek time,平均寻道时间)

ata(at attachment,at扩展型)

atomm(advanced super thin-layer and high-output metal media,增强形超薄高速金属媒体)

bps(bit per second,位/秒)

cam(common access model,公共存取模型)

css(common command set,通用指令集)

dma(direct memory access,直接内存存取)

dvd(digital video disk,数字视频光盘)

eide(enhanced integrated drive electronics,增强形电子集成驱动器)

fat(file allocation tables,文件分配表)

fdbm(fluid dynamic bearing motors,液态轴承马达)

fdc(floppy disk controller,软盘驱动器控制装置)

fdd(floppy disk driver,软盘驱动器)

gmr(giant magnetoresistive,巨型磁阻)

hda(head disk assembly,磁头集合)

hifd(high-capacity floppy disk,高容量软盘)

ide(integrated drive electronics,电子集成驱动器)

lba(logical block addressing,逻辑块寻址)

mbr(master boot record,主引导记录)

mtbf(mean time before failure,平均故障时间)

pio(programmed input output,可编程输入输出模式)

prml(partial response maximum likelihood,最大可能部分反应,用于提高磁盘读写传输率)

rpm(rotation per minute,转/分)

rsd: removable storage device(移动式存储设备)

scsi(small computer system interface,小型计算机系统接口)

scma:scsi configured auto magically,scsi自动配置

s.m.a.r.t.(self-monitoring, analysis and reporting technology,自动监测、分析和报告技术)

sps(shock protection system,抗震保护系统)

sta(scsi trade association,scsi同业公会)

ultra dma(ultra direct memory access,超高速直接内存存取)

lvd(low voltage differential)

seagate硬盘技术

discwizard(磁盘控制软件)

dst(drive self test,磁盘自检程序)

seashield(防静电防撞击外壳)

 

光驱

atapi(at attachment packet interface)

bcf(boot catalog file,启动目录文件)

bif(boot image file,启动映像文件)

cdr(cd recordable,可记录光盘)

cd-rom/xa(cd-rom extended architecture,唯读光盘增强形架构)

cdrw(cd-rewritable,可重复刻录光盘)

clv(constant linear velocity,恒定线速度)

dae(digital audio extraction,数据音频抓取)

ddss(double dynamic suspension system,双悬浮动态减震系统)

ddss ii(double dynamic suspension system ii,第二代双层动力悬吊系统)

pcav(part constant angular velocity,部分恒定角速度)

vcd(video cd,视频cd)

 

 


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