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报刊英语单词精华(一)

报刊英语单词精华(一)

报刊英语单词精华(一)

1.abstract art :  抽象派艺术

艺术 · Art

A nonrepresentational style that emphasizes formal values over the representation of subject matter.

强调形式至上,忽视内容的一种非写实主义绘画风格

Kandinsky produced abstract art characterized by imagery that had a musical quality.

康定斯创作的抽象派作品有一种音乐美。

2.abstract expressionism :  抽象表现派;抽象表现主义

A nonrepresentational style that emphasizes emotion, strong color, and giving primacy to the act of painting.

把绘画本身作为目的,以表达情感和浓抹重涂为特点的非写实主义风格。

Abstract expressionism was at its peak in the 1940s and 1950s.

20 世纪四五十年代是抽象表现艺术发展的顶峰时期。

3.action painting :  动作画派

A term used to describe aggressive methods of applying paint.

指使画布产生强烈动作效果的绘画风格。

Action painting often looks childish to the non-artist because of the

techniques used to apply paint, such as throwing it on the canvas.                                                           

在外行看来,动作派的作品通常是幼稚的,这主要是因为画家采用的作画方法,比如将颜料泼洒在画布上。

4.airbrush :  喷枪;气笔

A nozzled tube used to apply paint in a spray form.

一种将颜料喷成雾状的喷嘴管。

The famous sexy robots in Japan are produced using an airbrush.

那些性感的日本机器人就是用喷枪绘制成的。

5.art deco  :装饰派艺术

A style dominant in the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by repetitive, ornamental, and highly finished curvilinear and geometric designs, esp. in synthetic materials such as plastics.

盛行于 20 世纪二、三十年代的装饰艺术和建筑艺术风格,以重复的、装饰精美的曲线和几何图案为特点国,多采

用塑料等合成材料。

Mary attended high school in a building  that was famous for art deco style of architecture. Mary 就读的中学以其装饰派建筑而闻名。

6.art nouveau  :新艺术

A decorative style in which fluid, biomorphic lines and swirling motifs were emphasized.

以曲折有致的天物形态为特色的装饰性风格。

Beardsley prints produced in the late 19th century are a good example of the style of art nouveau.

19 世纪末比乐兹利的作品是新艺术的典范。

7.avent-garde :  先锋派

Innovative art in advance of popular ideas and images, characterized by unorthodox and experimental method.

不拘于现有的创作定式,勇于创新超前思维的艺术形式。

The avant-garde home of the famous actress sold for millions.

那位影星的先锋派住宅卖出了几百万美元的好价钱。

8.Baroque  :巴罗克风格

An emotional, dramatic style of the 16th-18th century, anticlassical in form and spirit.

流行于 16 至 18 世纪,以情感强烈、铺张浮华为特点的反古典主义的艺术风格。

Status and architecture from the Baroque have a dark, muscular, looming quality about them.

巴罗克风格的雕塑和建筑雄伟、高大、格调阴暗。

9.batik  :蜡防印花

Painting on wax-treated cloth.

在蜡布上作的画。

Susan learned about batik in college.

苏珊在读大学时学过蜡防印花。

10.Bauhaus  :包豪斯建筑风格

A design school that promoted functional and geometric elements in design.

指包豪斯造型学院倡导的强调实用和几何学要素的建筑风格。

Bauhaus school of design in Germany changed the way that the world thought about design.

德国的包豪斯造型学院倡导的艺术改变了世人的既定设计思维模式。a

11.Byzantine  :拜占庭艺术风格的

(adj.) A term used to describe a style of art with strong religious content.

艺术风格突出强烈宗教色彩的。

The Byzantine era extended from the 13th century and went into the 16th century and was characterized by art with religious influence.

拜占庭式艺术始于 13 世纪,一直延续到 16 世纪,其主要特点是浓郁的宗教气息。

12.calligraphy  书法艺术

Handwriting or penmanship, esp. elegant or “beautiful” writing as a decorative art.

书写的艺术,特别是优雅漂亮可作装饰的笔迹。

Calligraphy has practically become a lost art in today’s computerized society.

在今天的电脑时代,书法艺术差不多要消亡了。

13.cartoon  草图,底图

A full-size, preliminary painting or sketch for a completed work.

一部完整艺术作品的雏形。

Leonardo da Vinci’s cartoon of the Virgin Mary and Saint Anne hangs in the British National Gallery.

达·芬奇的圣母马丽亚和圣安妮画像的草图现存于英国国家美术馆。

14.ceramics

(1)The art of making objects such as pottery or clay. (2)The objects themselves.

陶器制作艺术;陶器制品。

Savannah enjoys making ceramic pottery.

萨文喜欢做陶器

15.collage  :拼贴艺术

A composition of found objects, newspaper, and cloth over other material on a single surface.

把拣得的报纸、碎布等在画面上粘贴成画。

 

We used to make computer collages when I was in college by first pasting various items together and then using a video camera to transmit the image onto a computer screen.

我们在大学时曾用电脑制作拼贴画。其步骤是:首先,将各种材料粘在一起,然后用摄像机将图像传送到电脑上。

16.composition  :艺术作品

Aesthetically pleasing, harmonious, and effective arrangement of parts to form a whole.

各部分和谐生动、符合美学规律的作品。

Matisse used color and shapes and worked back and forth until he felt he had achieved a balanced composition.

马蒂斯反复调试色彩、构思图案,终于画了一幅布局和谐的作品。

17.computer art  计算机艺术

Electronically produced images displayed on video screen.

在屏幕上显示运用电子手段设计图像的艺术。

Computer art become popular in the 1980s when computers started to become more available to the public.

当 80 年代个人电脑开始普及之后,计算机艺术也流行起来。

18.cubism  :立方主义;立体派

A style of art that departs from traditional reality, and emphasizes multifaceted, simultaneous views of subject and distorted perspectives.(early 20th century)

20 世纪初出现的一个艺术流派。它抛弃传统现实,强调艺术作品的形体结构,即同时性、多角度性及扭曲的视角。

Pablo Picasso played a principal role in the early movement of cubism.

帕勃洛·毕加索在立体派早期发展中起首重要的推动作用。

19.Dada  :达达主义

A style (1915-1925) with antirational approach and nihilistic, absurdist, and incongruous themes.

流行于 1915 年至 1925 年间的艺术流派,其特点是反理性的创作手法和虚无、诞。矛盾的主题。 Dadaism asked “what is art?” and used humor and shock value as communicative elements.   达达主义设问“什么是艺术?”并用幽默和让人震惊的色彩对比手法作答。

20.drawing  :素描

A picture, design, or sketch done with lines in pen or pencil.

用钢笔或铅笔勾勒出的图画、图案或写生图。

The drawings of Michelangelo were recently exhibited in New York.

米开朗基罗的素描最近在纽约展出。

21.expressionism  :表现主义

An early 20th-century style emphasizing emotional expression, strong color and composition, and a distorted, theatrical treatment of image.

20 世纪的一种艺术风格,强调情绪的表现,以浓重的色彩、明的构图,扭曲、夸张的形象处理为特点。

Professor Bryer will be giving a lecture  on expressionism tonight.

今晚布莱恩教授有一个关于表现主义的讲座。

22.fresco  :温壁画技法;湿壁画

A technique of painting directly on a wet, plaster surface.

在潮湿的石膏表面上直接作画。

We all marveled at the beauty of the 17th century fresco.

23.funk art  :非理性艺术;恶臭艺术

A combination of  painting  and  sculpture,  deliberately  messing  and  rough,  often  humorously  depicting  provocative subjects.(U.S., mid-20th century)

20 世纪中期出现在美国的一种艺术流派。故意杂乱无章、不加修饰的绘画与雕塑的融合。多以幽默的方式描绘刺

激性的场面。

Jeson has been collecting funk art since the mid 1960s.

杰森从 20 世纪 60 年代中期就开始收集非理性艺术作品。

24.futurism  :未来主义

A style glorifying modern technology, speed, and the machine age. ( Italy, early 20th century )

颂扬现代技术、速度和机器时代的创作风格。起源于 20 世纪初的意大利。

Art from the era of futurism can be identified by a combination of machine elements, cubism, and motion.

未来主义时期艺术的突出特点是机器法则、立方主义与运动机械的组合。

25.genre  :风俗画

A realistic depiction of scenes from everyday domestic life.

日常家居生活的写实画。

Who is your favorite genre painter?

你最喜欢的风俗画家是谁?

26.Gothic  :哥特风格

A style that emphasizes Christian imagery, brilliant color, and strong verticality in composition. ( 12th – 16th century )

以基督教题材、亮丽的色彩、明显的垂直线条为特点的绘画风格。流行于 12 至 16 世纪。 Jean dislikes Gothic art because it feels too religious. 吉不喜欢哥特风格的作品,因为它们的宗教色彩太浓。

27.gouache  :树胶水彩颜料

An opaque watercolor bound with gum.

由胶水调和的不透光水彩。

Do you like the quality of gouache in paintings?

你喜欢水彩画吗?

  1. graphic arts :平面造型艺术

Those visual arts that are linear in character, such as drawing and engraving, esp. those   that involve printing and printmaking.

平面视角艺术,特别是指与印刷业有关的素描、雕刻等。

The computer is now enabling anyone to produce and design and experiment with graphic art.

计算机的出现使任何人都能制造、设计和试验平面视角艺术。

29.hard-edge  :锋刃派绘画的;硬边画的

(adj.) A style characterized by geometric abstraction, a flat picture plan, perfection of a surface, and graphic precision.

(U.S., mid-20th century)

流行于 20 世纪中期的美国,以轮廓分明的几何形体、精确的画面为特点的抽象绘画。

Patrick Nagel’s hard-edge style of 80’s women became one of the strongest images in the 20th century.

派特克·纳哥尔的锋刃派风格的 80 年代妇女成了 20 世纪最具说明力的形象之一。

30.history painting  :历史题材的绘画

An academic depiction of scenes from mythology, history, or the Bible.

以神话、历史或圣经为题材的传统绘画。

Temple Square in Salt Lake City has a visitor center filled with history paintings.

盐湖城的神殿广场有一个观光中心,里面存满了历史题材的绘画作品。

31.hyperrealism  :高度写实主义

An extension of photorealism in which depiction of subject is indistinguishable from reality. (late 20th century)

20 世纪末兴起的一种绘画流派。照相现实主义的延伸,强调对现实的临摹。

 

The interesting aspect of hyperrealism is that it challenges the viewer to try to decide what is real and what isn’t.

高度写实主义绘画很有意思的一点是,观者很难判断哪些是真实的,哪些是虚构的。

32.impressionism  :印象主义,印象派

 

A style emphasizing the depiction of light and its effects, with the act of seeing as its primary subject. (France 19th century

强调绘画中的光感,以视觉影象作为描绘对象。

 

Impressionism has long been one of the most popular art movements. Van Gogh’s impressionistic painting entitled “Dr. Gachet” was purchased for a world record $ 85 million by a Japanese investor.

长期以来,印象主义一直是最具有影响力的艺术运动之一。凡高的印象派作品《盖什医生》被一名日本投资商以

8500 万美元的天价购得。

33.Kakemono  :画轴

 

A Japanese vertical scroll painting.

日本的一种垂直式卷轴画。

 

Debbie purchased several kakemono scrolls during her year as an exchange student in Japan.

德比在日本做交换学生时买了几卷画轴。

34.kinetic art  :活动艺术

 

Art characterized by the incorporation of painted and sculpted mechanical parts into an art piece that moves or creates the impression of movement.

兴起于 20 世纪中期的一种与机械学相结合的艺术,采用活动部件,造成动感效果的雕塑艺术。

 

Kinetic art can be seen in front of many office buildings built during the 50’s and 60’s.

在五、六十年代,办公大楼前的雕塑多属活动艺术作品。

35.landscape  :风景画,山水画

 

A depiction of natural land forms, sometimes allegorical.

以自然风景为主题,有时含有讽喻意义的作品。

 

Paula travels to New Mexico each summer to paint western landscapes.

波拉每年夏天都去新墨西哥州画西部风景画。

36.medium  :溶剂,调色剂,材料

 

A liquid in which pigment is mixed to form paint; a type of paint of coloring matter used in painting.

绘画用的调和颜料的液体;艺术创作所使用的材料。

 

It’s sometimes fun to look at a painting and try to figure out what medium the artist used.

有时猜猜一部艺术作品所使用的材料很有意思。

37.Ming  :具有明代艺术特色的

 

(adj)Characteristic of a highly academic classicism, esp. in porcelains. (China, 14th –17th centuries)

高度传统古典主义倾向的,特别是指与 14 至 17 世纪中国明代瓷器有关的艺术。

 

Dr. Franks is    an expert on porcelains from the Ming dynasty.     

37.minimal art  :极简抽象艺术;最小主义艺术

 

An abstract, simple, reductionist style with absence of all but basic formal elements and primary colors. (U.S. mid-20th century)

美国 20 世纪中期兴起的一种艺术流派,特点是抽象、简单、微缩,即把作品简略到基本抽象成分。

 

Minimalism is characterized by space with very sparse design elements and helped launch the popular art slogan of “less is more.”

最小主义艺术的特征是稀疏的画面,这一艺术促成了“简即繁”的艺术口号。

38.modernism   :现主义

 

A style that breaks with traditional art forms and searches for new modes of expression.

一种新的、脱离传统艺术手法的表现形式。

 

Modernism became popular in the early part of the 20th century.

现代主义在 20 世纪初开始流行起来。

39.mosaic  :马赛克;镶嵌工艺,镶嵌画

 

An illustration composed of small, colored stones or tiles set into cement.

用五颜六色的小石子或瓦片在水泥板上镶嵌面成的图案。

 

The new mall in town features a giant mosaic over the main entrance way.

在城里新建的林荫道的主要入口处有一个巨大的镶嵌画。

(我觉得这句话应译成:城里新建的大型商场/购物中心的入口处有一巨幅镶嵌画。—southleaf)

40.mural  :壁画;壁饰

 

A large-scale painting, usually on a wall or ceiling.

 

通常挂在墙上或天花板上的巨幅画。

 

The McMullen’s have a giant mural painting along the hallway in their home.

麦克伦家的门厅里有一幅巨型壁画。

41.neoclassicism  :新古典主义

 

A style modeled after proportion and restraint of Greek and Roman classical antiquity. (late 18th, early 19th century.)

模仿和借鉴古希腊罗马匀称、庄重建筑风格的艺术形式,盛行于 18 世纪末,19 世纪初。

 

We knew that Mr. Samuels was into neoclassicism by the way that he had his courtyard decorated with nude statues.

42.new wave  :新浪潮

 

A combination of cartoon, graffiti, and performance art in a minimalist, unsophisticated style (late 20th century.)

综合漫画、涂鸦和表演艺术的艺术形式,其风格简单自然。

 

There’s a new wave art show currently on exhibit up at the local college gallery.

本地大学美术馆正在举办一个新浪潮艺术作品展。

43.nude  :裸体画,裸体像

 

The undraped human figure, sometimes allegorical.

无遮盖的人体画像,有时具有讽喻意义。

 

The nude has always played a powerful role in art throughout the ages.                                

在艺术领域,裸体画一直占有重要地位。

44.oil paint  :油画颜料;油漆

 

Pigment mixed with drying oil, exp. linseed oil.

和亚麻油等干性油混制成的颜料。

 

You can buy a beginner’s set of oil paints for under $ 20.

花不到 20 元,你就可以买到初学者所用的一套油画颜料。

45.op art  :光效应艺术,视觉艺术

 

A style with graphic abstraction and pattern-oriented optical effects (mid-20th century)

利用几何图形和色彩对比给人以模棱两可的视幻觉艺术,起源于 20 世纪中期。

 

Riley and Vasarely are two noteable artists who made contributions in the illusory world of op art.

瑞利和凡撒里这两位著名的艺术家为梦幻般的光效应艺术作出了贡献。

46.performance art  :戏剧表演艺术   

 

Use of paintings, sculpture, and video in live theatrical performance by the artist. (late 20th century)

现场戏剧表演中艺术家掺入绘画、雕塑和摄像等形式的综合艺术。兴起于 20 世纪末。 We watched a program that featured performance art on TV last night. 昨晚有一个电视介绍了表现派艺术。

47.pastel  :彩色粉笔画

 

A crayon made of color ground with chalk and compounded with gum water into paste, often of pale color.

粉笔作底色,用胶水调和色彩。色调淡雅。

 

Degas is probably my favorite pastel artist.

德加大概算是我最喜欢的彩色粉笔画家了。

48.perspective  :透视画法

 

A system  of  realistically  depicting  three-dimensional  objects  or  views  onto  two-dimensional,  flat  surfaces  through convergent lines and planes.

以现实的手法,在两维的平面上,利用线和面趋向会合的视错觉原理刻画三维物体的艺术。

 

Perspective illustration provides a three-dimensional view of objects or views.

透视画法提供了一个对物体或景色的三维视角。

49.pictograph  :象形文字;图画文字

 

A picture symbolizing an idea or object, used as an early form of writing.

代表一个思想或物体的图画。属早期的文字。

 

Three men were arrested for vandalizing ancient pictographs found I the canyons of southern Utah.

50.pointillism  :点画法;点彩派

 

Neo-impressionism characterized by the use of tiny, closely spaced dots or points of color that blend to produce a luminous quality.

新印象主义画法,用微小、密集的彩色点混合后产生一种夺目的效果。

 

The painting “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” by Seurat is probably the most famous work of pointillism.

修拉的《在拉·格兰德·加特岛的一个星期天下午》大概是最有名的点彩派画了。

51.pop art  :波普艺术

 

A style-making use of images from popular culture and commerce, often reproduced exactly. (mid-20th century)

把精确复制大众文化和商业中的形象作为一种艺术创作。起源于 20 世纪中 

 

Roy Litchenstein, who helped start the movement in the 1950s, continues to rule the king of pop art  into the 90s.

早在 50 年代,罗耶·列克敦斯坦就参与发起波普艺术运动,直到 90 年代他依然是波普艺术的顶尖人物。

52.primitivism  :原始风格

 

A style with an unsophisticated, pretechnological, simple approach to form and content.

形式处理和内容表现力求简洁,避免复杂化或工艺手段的创作风格。

 

The famous series of “cut-outs” by Henri Matisse are a good example of primitivism.

亨利·马蒂斯著名的《割断》系列作品是原始主义流派的代表作之一。

53.realism  :现实主义风格

 

Art that depicts reality as it appears.

以写实的手法描绘现实。

 

I am in awe when I view realism such as the landscapes painted  by 17th  century Dutch artist Jan Vemeeer.

欣赏着 17 世纪荷兰画家杨·弗美尔的风景画,我被其中的现实主义风格所震撼。

54.Renaissance  :文艺复兴时期风格的;文艺复兴

 

(adj.)Art that is classical in form and content. (n.) revival of aesthetics of classical antiquity. (14th – 17th century) 艺术作品的形式和内容具有古典主义色;从 14 世纪延续到 17 世纪的经典传统美学的复兴。 Renaissance art is still appreciated by artists of today.

现在的艺术家仍然对文艺复兴时期的艺术珍爱有加。

 

Much of the greatest art in the history of the world was produced during the Renaissance.

世界艺术史上最的作品很多是在文艺复兴时期产生的。

55.rococo  :洛可可艺术的;洛可可式的

 

A style with ornamental, poetic, curvilinear forms and lyrical themes.

融装饰性、诗化的、曲线的形式和抒情主题为一体的艺术。

 

Mrs. Mead is looking for a chair in rococo style.

米德夫人想买一个洛可可式的椅子。

56.sculpture  :雕刻术;雕塑术

 

The art of carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, etc. into three-dimensional representations, as statues, figures, forms, etc.

通过对木头、石头进行雕刻,对金属加以铸造、焊接,或对泥、蜡加工制成的三维雕塑作品。

 

Mr. Rushmore which depicts images of 4 U.S. presidents in the Black Hills, South Dakota, is one of the most famous sculptures in America.

在南达科他州布莱克山区的拉什莫尔山刻有四位美国总统的雕像。它们是美国最有名的雕塑之一。

 

57.self-portrait  :自画像

 

A depiction of an artist’s own face

艺术家创作的自己的肖像画。

 

Artist’s self-portraits are usually very sought-after works of art.

人们总是乐于求购艺术家的自画像。

58.still lift  :静物画

 

A realistic depiction of inanimate objects, esp. flowers, fruit, or domestic items.

以写实的手法描绘无生命的物体,比如花、水果、家什等。

 

Cezanne is known for his unique still life paintings of apples.

赛尚以独具一格的苹果静物画闻名遐迩。

59.surrealism  :超现实主义

 

A style using subconscious mental activity as its subject matter, characterized by dreamlike, hallucinatory imagery.

将下意识的精神活动作为描写对象,多运用梦幻意象的艺术形式。

 

The artist Salvador Dali is synonymous with surrealism.

艺术家萨尔瓦多·达利是超现实主义的同义词。

60.Symbolism  :象征主义

 

A 19th century French movement that rejected realism and expressed subjective visions through evocative images.

产生于 19 世纪的法国艺术运动。它摒弃现实主义手法,通过使人产生联想的意像表达主观感受。

 

Great art most always incorporates symbolism.

伟大的艺术几乎总具有象征意义。

61.video art  :视频艺术

 

The use of filmed or videotaped material display alone or with other media.( late 20th century) 通过创造性地利用视频技术产生可以在电视屏幕上观看的一种艺术形式,产生于 20 世纪末。 Video art has become a popular medium in today’s art, especially in collages.

今天,视频艺术已经成为一种非常受欢迎的绘画形式,特别是拼贴画中。

62.watercolor :水彩颜料;水彩画

 

A paint which is mixed with water and used to create pictures; A picture which has been done with this type of paint.

一种与水混合用来作画的颜料;用这种颜料作的画。

 

My uncle did a beautiful watercolor of a sunset while in Mexico. 我的叔叔在墨西哥时画了一幅漂亮的日落水彩画。

63.account  :财帐;帐

 

A record of financial transactions kept in a ledger.

在分类帐中保存的财务来往记录。

 

A bank account

银行帐户

 

A customer or client

顾客或客户

 

Let’s check the account again.

我们再查一遍帐。

 

How much is left in our bank account.

银行帐上还剩多少。

 

This firm is our best account.

这家商行是我们最好的客户。

 

64.accounting  :会计

 

A system and process of gathering and recording financial information that provides a continuous balance between assets and liabilities.

收集和记录财务住处的制度和过程,并据此不断提供资产和负债之间的余额。

 

You need to discuss that matter with the accounting department.

你应当和财务部讨论这个问题。

65.accumulation  :资本增益

 

An addition to capital investments or stock from profits.

资本投资的收益或股分增值。

 

What kink of accumulation are you getting on the ABC stock?

你有 ABC 公司的股份有什么资本增益?

66.affluence  :富裕

 

The condition of substantial wealth and economic power.

拥有雄厚财富和经济实力的状况。

 

Luxury cars are targeted towards the affluent segment of a population.

豪华轿车是以人口中的富裕阶层为销售对象的。

67.affiliate  :成员,分公司

 

A business that contracts to work with another business.

签订合同与另一公司合作的公司。

 

The ABC office supply company is one of our many affiliates. ABC 办公用品公司是我们众多分公司的其中之一。

68.agenda  :日程表

 

A list of things to be done.

要处理的事务清单

 

Could you please fax me a copy of tomorrow’s agenda?

能否将明天的日程表给我发个传真?

69.agribusiness  :农业综合企业

 

The production and marketing of corps by  large corporations as opposed to individual farms.

由大集团公司进行的农产品的生产和销售,与个体农场主经营方式相反。

 

John was forced into bankruptcy when he lost millions of dollars he had invested in a poor agribusiness venture.

约翰在农业综合企业中投资不当,损失了数百万美元,被迫破产。

70.air-pocket stock  气穴股票 Stock that falls sharply on bad news. 一有坏消息便急剧下跌的股票。

Company stock sometimes turns into air-pocket stock upon the news of the company’s CEO’s serious illness or death.

一旦公司总裁病重或去世的消息传出,其股票有时会变成气穴股票。

71.annual report  :年度报告

 

A financial report produced by the management of a corporation for shareholders the end of fiscal year.

在每个财政年末,由公司的资方向股东提供的财务报告。

72.asset  :资产

 

A possession that can be turned into cash to cover liabilities

能被转化为现金以抵消债务的财物

 

We were forced to liquidate some of our assets to pay our debts.

我们被迫变卖一些资产以偿还债务。

 

73.automation  :自动化

 

The replacement of human laborers with computers and self-regulating machines

用计算机和自动化控制的机器来代替人力。

Automation in factories will continue to eliminate more and more jobs into the 21st century.

到 21 世纪,工厂的自动化将继续削减更多的就业机会。

74.balanced budget  :平衡预算

 

Spending that is equal to revenue, esp. in government.

一个机构的开支和收入相等,特别指在政府方面

75.bankruptcy  :破产

 

The inability to pay one’s debts; legal insolvency

无力偿还债务,法律上的资不抵债。

 

Many private companies are forced to declare bankruptcy when they begin to lose business to their competitors.

许多私营企业在经营上输给其竞争对手时,不得不宣布破产。

76.big business  :大公司

 

A term used to describe large corporations, as opposed to small individually or family-owned business.

 

大规模的股份有限责任公司,与私有或家庭经营的小型企业相反。

 

Darren wants to get into big business some day.

77.Black Monday  :黑色星期一

                    

 

October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell a record 508 points in trading on the New York Stock

 

Exchange.

1987 年 10 月 19 日,纽约股票交易所道·琼斯工业股票平均指数狂跌创纪录的 508 点。

78.blue chip stock  :热门股票,绩优股,蓝筹股

 

A term used to describe high-quality stocks of financially sound corporations

指财务上可靠的公司发行的高质量股票。

 

Mr. Jeppson has a portfolio of nothing but blue chip stocks.

杰普逊先生持有的有价证券里全部都是热门股票。

79.bond  :债券

 

A security issued by a corporation or public body and carrying a fixed rate of interest

由公司或政府机构发行的固有利率的有价债券。

 

What’s the interest rate on these bonds?

这些债券的利率是多少?

80.boom  :繁荣

 

A period of great economic activity and business expansion

(企业等)经济非常活跃,经营扩张的时期。

 

The soft drink business always booms in the summertime.

饮料业在夏天总是兴旺繁荣。

81.boondoggle  :无效的投资 A wasteful business venture 不见回报的经营投机

Our investment in water softeners was a boondoggle.

我们在水软化器上的投资打了水漂。

82.bottom line  :最终结果

 

The final result or ultimate objective

最终的结果或目标

 

What’s the bottom line of your proposal?

你的建议要达到的最终目标是什么?

83.boycott  :抵制

 

The refusal to purchase the products of an individual, corporation, or nation as a way to bring social and political pressure for change.

拒绝购买某一个人、公司或国家的产品,作为施加社会、政治压力,促进其改变政策的一种手段。

 

Americans boycotted tuna several years ago until tuna companies guaranteed that they weren’t catching dolphins in their tuna nets.

几年前美国人抵制金枪鱼,直至金枪鱼公司保证在捕捞金枪鱼时放掉海豚。

84.budget  :预算

 

A plan of expenditures based on anticipated revenues.

根据估算的收入而制订的开支计划。

 

How much do we have left in our budget?

我们的预算还剩多少?

85.business cycle  :景气周期

 

Periodic rise and fall in economic activity

经济活动中周期性的涨落。

 

U.S. retailers see the same basic business cycle every year and typically do most of their business during the Christmas season.

美国零售商们每年都经历相同的景气周期。通常情况下,他们大部分生产都是在圣诞节期间做的。

86.bust  :崩溃

 

An informal term referring to a financial or economic collapse

非正式用语,指金融或经济上破产。

 

The economy is currently in a bust.

目前经济处于崩溃之中。

87.buying power :购买力 Purchasing power 购买商品的能力。

The buying power of the dollar has steadily declined during the last twenty-five years.

在过去的 25 年里,美元的购买力持续下降。

88.capital  :资本

 

Money, assets, or property used as a means of production or for investment

可以用作生产或投资手段的金钱、资产或财物。

 

Some futurists claim that human capital is a company’s greatest asset.

一些未来学家声称公司的人力资本是其最大的资产。

89.capitalism  :资本主义

 

An economic system based on private ownership and profit incentive

建立在私有制和利润刺激基础上的一种经济制度。

 

People in some countries don’t really understand the system of capitalism.

一些国家的人们并不真正理解资本主义制度。

90.cash cow  :摇钱树

 

An informal term for a business with a dependable source of income

非正式用语。指收入来源可靠的生意。

 

This product has always been a cash cow for our company.

 

这种产品一直是我们公司的摇钱树。

91.cash flow  :现金流通

 

Fluctuations in a company’s cash position

公司现金形势的波动情况。

 

Our company is currently having a cash flow problem.

92.CEO  :总裁,总经理

 

An acronym for “chief executive officer”. The highest executive officer of a company. “chief executive officer”的缩略词。指公司的最高行政长官。

Advertisers are using CEO’s more frequently in their company’s commercials because studies show that people trust and admire leaders.

广告商们在广告片中越来越多地利用总裁的形象,因为研究表明,人们相信、崇拜领导者。

93.Chapter 11  :破产条款

 

A bankruptcy code section that applies to a corporation going out of business which may require restructuring.

破产法的部分章节,适用于需要重组的倒闭公司。

 

Rumors are spreading that one of the big movie companies is filing a chapter 11.                           

有谣言说一家大的电影公司正申请破产。

94.commercialism  :重商主义,商业行为

 

The practice and spirit of business in which the making of profits is emphasized.

商业做法和精神,强调利润的追求。

 

Many American dislike the commercialism that is associated with Christmas.

95.competition  :竞争

 

The rivalry between similar businesses for customers or clients.

经营产品相近的厂商间争夺顾客或客户的斗争。

 

Competition in business is good because it generally results in better quality and lower prices for consumers.

商业竞争中是好事,它可以为消费者带来更好的质量和更低的价格。

96.conglomerate  :集团公司,联合大企业

 

A corporation made up several companies that  produce large quantities of output in a variety of industries.

诸多产业中,由几家公司组成的股份公司,大量生产各种产品。

 

Proctor & Gamble is a large personal product conglomerate.

宝洁公司是一家生产个人卫生用品的大集团公司。

97.consumerism  :(1)消费;(2)消费者权益运动 The consumption of goods and service. 商品和服务的耗费

Inflation always hurts consumerism.

通货膨胀总是打击消费。

 

The protection of consumers form poor products or misleading claims.

保护消费者免受劣质产品和误导性广告的侵害。

 

The U.S. Food and Drug administration tries to regulate consumerism.

美国食品和医药管理局想规范消费者权益运动。

98.consumer price index  :消费品价格指数

 

A measure of the fluctuation in prices of common consumer goods and services over a fixed time period.

在一定时期内衡量常用消费品和服务价格波动情况的一种尺度。

 

The consumer price index is a good reference tool to use in order to learn how much the price of a specific item has changed over the last several years.

 

想了解某一特定商品在过去几年内的价格变化情况,消费品价格指数是一个很好的工具。

99.corporate ladder :公司的官阶

 

A series of steps in the organizational hierarchy of a company.

公司组织等级制度中的一系列晋升阶梯。

 

Climbing the corporate ladder is not as popular as it used to be.

走公司的晋升之道不象以前那样有吸引力了。

100.corporate raider :强行收购

 

A person, company, etc. that attempts to take over another company, exp. by buying up the stock of the target company.

个人或公司通常以全部买下其看准的公司的股份而吞并该公司。

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